Collective Punishment

Mob Violence, Riots and Pogroms against African American Communities (1824-1974)

Interactive Map (Click to load)

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Data (Click to load)

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About this Project

We have sought to collate a comprehensive record of white mob violence that collectively punished African American communities across the United States. While the thousands of lynchings that occurred were also a form of racial terrorism against the African American community we have generally excluded them from this project. See the Equal Justice Initiative report for full data about lynchings (the New York Times have mapped this here). Where lynchings have been included they are generally crimes which were especially perpetrated to terrorise the wider community. See the lynching in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1927 where the body of the victim was dragged into the middle of the African American area and burnt.

Framed by racism, segregation and white supremacism, these violent incidents cover almost every aspect of American society. Housing, military, labour, unions, politics, business, religion, justice, police enforcement, education, and immigration. Thus we believe this data traces white supremacist efforts to assert dominance and control using terror and violence over a circa 200 year period.

Suggest an incident to be added or a correction

This project is an ongoing effort and we welcome all suggestions. Please get in touch by using the contact form below, or alternatively you can contact me on twitter. If you wish to suggest an incident that fits our criteria or if you have noticed an error then please let us know.

Creative Commons License
Collective Punishment: Mob Violence, Riots and Pogroms against African American Communities by Liam Hogan et al is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Project Manager and Lead Researcher
Liam Hogan (@Limerick1914)

John Levin, Phenderson Clarke, Ramon Jackson, Anthony Watkins II, Adam Fox

3 thoughts on “Collective Punishment

  1. I am interested in the Enid, OK event. I read the linked pdf, and it didn’t shed much light on the event itself. I am a lifelong Enid resident, and interested in any academic material you might have access to. The demographic information in the linked pdf is interesting, but doesn’t much touch on the event itself.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Hello – really happy to learn about this work. I’ve been similarly engaged, but with a slightly different and broader focus on documenting events of racial violence. I’d like to talk with you about our respective efforts if possible.

    There is a fair bit of detail about what I’ve been doing here (see Racial Violence Archive):

    This link will take you to the mockup of an interactive database similar to yours in many respects (sharing, collecting, visualizing data), but the data distribution/collection features are not yet functional – I have limited programmer support in the form of occasional student labor for now.

    Geoff Ward
    UC Irvine

    Liked by 1 person

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